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Creating-Your-First-Hello-World-Module-in-Magento-2-A-Beginners-Guide

Creating Your First “Hello World” Module in Magento 2: A Beginner’s Guide

In this blog post we will see how to create simple “HelloWorld” module in magento2.

In magento2 all modules reside in the folder app/code, previously in magento1 there was the concept of local/ community/ core/ folders but that has been removed now.
In this blog post we will see how to create a new module, create a route and display “Hello World”

Step 1: Creating The Directory Structure

Module names in Magento 2 are divided into two part “VendorName_ModuleName”
e.g Magento_Contact, Magento_Catalog or ManishJoy_HelloWorld

First part is the vendor name which can be your company name and second part is the actual module name.

Let’s take our module name to be “ManishJoy_HelloWorld”. First we need to make the directory structure for this module:

app/code/ManishJoy/HelloWorld

Step 2: Creating module.xml

Introduce your module by creating a module.xml file within the /etc directory of your component like this:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:Module/etc/module.xsd">
    <module name="ManishJoy_HelloWorld" setup_version="1.0.0"/>
</config>

The “name” attribute specifies your module’s name and is mandatory for all components. If you’re not utilizing the Declarative Schema for managing installation and upgrades, include the “setup_version” attribute in the module tag. Assign the “setup_version” value to match your module’s database schema version. If you’re using Declarative Schema, there’s no need for the “setup_version” attribute.

If you don’t have any idea about “Declarative Schema”, don’t worry. We will discuss in details in some other blog. In this blog, let’s focus on the basics of creating your first Magento 2 extension(module).

Step 3: Creating registration.php

To register your module, you need to create a registration.php file with the following content:

<?php
\Magento\Framework\Component\ComponentRegistrar::register(
    \Magento\Framework\Component\ComponentRegistrar::MODULE,
    'ManishJoy_HelloWorld',
    __DIR__
);

Step 4: Enabling the Module

Now an empty module is ready, we now need to enable it. Before that, check and verify your directory structure, it should look like this:

At this stage if you run this command

bin/magento module:status

You should see

List of disabled modules:
ManishJoy_HelloWorld

This means the module is setup, but it is disabled right now. To enable the module, run this command:

php bin/magento module:enable ManishJoy_HelloWorld

This should enable your module. Another way of doing this is, go to this file:

app/etc/config.php

You will see a long list of modules there, just add your module as well:

...
'ManishJoy_HelloWorld' => 1,
....

This will enable your module as well. After this step, when you open your website in browser you will get an error saying:

Please upgrade your database: Run "bin/magento setup:upgrade" from the Magento root directory.

To fix this, just run the setup:upgrade command:

bin/magento setup:upgrade

At this point you are all set with an empty module.

Step 5: Creating Your first Route and Testing Your Module

As we have created an empty module and have enabled it too. But you cannot see any impact of this module. Let’s create a new URL and display “Hello World”. In order to do it, we need to create a Magento Route and Controller.

Routes/URLs in Magento are divided into 3 parts like this:

http://yourbaseurl.com/route_id/controller/action

To add a route, we need to add routes.xml file in your module like at app/code/ManishJoy/HelloWorld/etc/frontend/routes.xml

Since this is a frontend route, we added it in frontend/ directory else we need to add it to adminhtml/ directory.

This will the content of this file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="../../../../../../lib/internal/Magento/Framework/App/etc/routes.xsd">
    <router id="standard">
        <route id="manishjoy" frontName="manishjoy">
            <module name="ManishJoy_HelloWorld" />
        </route>
    </router>
</config>  

We usually keep id and frontName the same (we will discuss these keywords in detail in some other blog. Let’s just focus on creating your first route and displaying “Hello World”).

Here we defined the first part of our route. So till now our route is

http://yourbaseurl.com/manishjoy/*

Next, we need to define our controller and action. Let’s assume we want our URL to be

http://yourbaseurl.com/manishjoy/hello/world

For this, we need create the controller file at this path: app/code/ManishJoy/HelloWorld/Controller/Hello/World.php

Now let’s add the code to our Controller World.php

<?php
namespace ManishJoy\HelloWorld\Controller\Hello;

use Magento\Framework\App\Action\HttpGetActionInterface;

class World extends \Magento\Framework\App\Action\Action  implements HttpGetActionInterface
{    
    public function execute()
    {
        echo 'Hello World';
        exit;
    } 
}

Now you are all set, now you can open the URL http://yourbaseurl.com/manishjoy/hello/world to test it. If you have followed all of the above steps properly, you should be able to see the output “Hello World” displayed on the page.

Important

1. There is another important thing to note, if you miss out controller or action name it automatically defaults to Index. Meaning, a url like http://yourbaseurl.com/manishjoy would find path
ManishJoy/HelloWorld/Controller/Index/Index.php
2. Another important thing, magento create auto generated files at var/generation/ManishJoy/HelloWorld/Controller . So if your noticing that, your making changes to controller and the changes are not showing up. Make sure to run setup:di:compile command

Conclusion

Congratulations, you have created your first module in Magento. We will learn more advanced features and customizations in the upcoming blogs of the Module Development Series.

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